By Giorgio Graffi
This booklet argues convincingly opposed to the frequent opinion that only a few syntactic experiences have been performed ahead of the Nineteen Fifties. hoping on the unique research of a big quantity of unique assets, it indicates that syntactic concerns have been actually rigorously investigated all through either the nineteenth century and through the 1st half the 20 th century. in addition, it illustrates how the large improvement of syntactic learn within the final fifty years has already condemned even numerous contemporary principles and analyses to oblivion, and deeply inspired present examine courses. The wealth of study undertaken over the past centuries is gifted the following in a scientific approach, taking as its place to begin the connection of syntax with psychology all through this era. The serious principles expressed within the textual content are in accordance with an in depth representation of different syntactic types and analyses instead of at the polemics among the various faculties.
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Additional info for 200 Years of Syntax: A critical survey
The first one was to maintain that 'to be', viz. the 'substantive' verb, is the only 'real' verb. The other verbs (the 'adjective' ones) derive from the coalescence of other mean ings with the proper verbal meaning of 'to be'; such coalescence is due to the 'natural tendency of men to abridge their expressions'. The other step taken by Port-Royal grammar was to identify sentence with judgement (see be low^. 1). 1). , in Du Marsais (cf. Sahlin 1928:116;306), as well as perhaps in other scholars.
20 200 YEARS OF SYNTAX vs. subordinate) of the constituent elements. The three different syntactic rela tionships which realize this unity instantiate its 'grammatical forms' (Becker 1841 : 162-167). 579). Logical form and grammatical form in Becker's sense are not to be equated with 'content side' and 'expression side', respectively. Indeed, it would seem that both lie on the content side and have their own means of ex pression: 'logical form' has intonation and word order, 'grammatical form' has inflection.
He charges Steinthal with having abandoned 'Humboldt's sun' to enter 'Herbart's labyrinth' (see Pott 1880a:xxxiii). xliii)". g. lxxix). Pott, anyway, seems to distinguish between what one could call "pure logic" (and he calls "teacher of thought laws") and the "logic of languages". Pott's view of the relationship between them could be summa rized with the following passage, which immediately reminds us of Hum boldt's positions (see above:21):14 Certainly, the world of sensations and thoughts in general remains identical, or analogous, to itself: hence logic must surely constrain any language to give a linguistic expression, in whatever way, to the notions of space and time for ex ample and to the resulting relationships, as well as to most general concepts or categories (in Kant's sense) and to many others of a more subordinate kind.
200 Years of Syntax: A critical survey by Giorgio Graffi