By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This booklet offers the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken by way of fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the manufactured from large research by means of the authors and contributors in box tools and crew research classes on the college of California, Berkeley, and includes ten chapters masking the segmental phonology, tone process, morphology, and sentence constitution, via appendices at the Nzadi humans and heritage and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound alterations. additionally integrated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a couple of fish species. sooner than this paintings, Nzadi had now not even been pointed out within the literature, and at the present nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the examine of Nzadi is its significant grammatical simplification, leading to buildings fairly varied from these of canonical Bantu languages. even supposing Nzadi has misplaced many of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable classification prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun category contract in genitive structures. different parts of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause buildings, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet entire grammar offers wide assurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic homes that might be of power curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people attracted to this quarter of the DRC, but in addition to typologists, basic linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
The H of CV syllables is thus in complementary distribution with the HL of other syllable shapes. 49] 53 L-L L-HL L-H o-C(G)V(V)(C) o-C(G)V(V)(C) o-CV L L -L L H -L L H -L As seen, verb roots have either /H/ or /L/ tone. In the infinitive a -L suffixal tone is assigned to the stem. When the verb root is L, the suffixal -L has no overt realization. When the root is H, however, the -L suffixal tone will link, as shown, to a H verb stem which has a CG initial, a long vowel, or a final consonant. The -L suffixal tone will not link to a H verb stem which has the shape CV.
Kó m@b vâ ‘to the dog’, ndé does not change. The pronoun ndé thus appears to be treated as if it were a LH rising tone whose H does not change. 33]. The question is how to interpret the above tonal changes. On the one hand they might be viewed as arbitrary, with HL replacing L, H, and LHL stem tones after kó (and genitive é, to be discussed below). The alternative is to attempt to derive the HL tones from an appropriate, underlying tonal input. The tone of kó is clearly /H/. e. /kó ` á/. Perhaps this L tone is responsible for the L tone realization of /a/ in forms like kó a múùr.
31]. kpê ‘short’, Ngyovûl ‘question’, o-yuvul ‘to ask (someone)’, ináána ‘eight’, ofwanan ‘to resemble’, ntsíìrí ‘canerat’, nç&wE ‘today’. The Sound System 29 In addition, there are 49 (non-reduplicated) entries with a consonant cluster in second position. 32] NC: Cs: /mb/ /nd/ /Ng/ [ndz] /ts/ /ks/ /fs/ /ms/ [nts] /Ns/ /rs/ /nk/ (7) (4) (7) (1) (3) (2) (1) (1) (4) (6) (1) (3) pambú mpçndç@ màáNgu&l mpandzí o-dyatsa o-vuksa o-dEfsa o-kumsa o-bán@tsa o-gçNsa o-sarsa o-sçnka ‘worm’ ‘millet’ ‘mango’ ‘rib’ ‘to lead’ ‘to mix’ ‘to lend’ ‘to praise’ ‘to think’ ‘to expand’ ‘to help’ ‘to write’ cf.
A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo by Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu