By Koichi Masubuchi
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Additional info for Analysis of Welded Structures. Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Their Consequences
For the high-alloy base materials which follow high RAD corridors, the HAZ problem is minimized, and excellent properties are obtained with latitude in the control of welding parameters. The high-alloy contents promote the development of optimum metallurgical structures over fairly wide ranges of weld heat-treatment variables, as compared to the low-alloy steels. For the low-alloy commercial steels which follow the low-corridor relationships, the HAZ problem becomes more difficult to resolve. This results from the marginal alloy contents which are barely adequate for developing desirable microstructures under controlled mill heat-treatment conditions.
Pre-weld cleaning with alkaline washes of dilute solutions of sodium hydroxide may also be required as well as an acid pickling treatment to remove the light oxide scale. Introduction 45 This again stresses the need for purity of the material during welding and purity of the gas used during the process. Commercially pure titanium. A weld in titanium that is commercially pure is essentially a casting. The grain size is very large and the structure consists of beta dendrites. (124) Titanium alloys.
Elements such as iron, chromium, and vanadium, which lower the transition temperature, are called "beta stabilizers". Thus, at a given cooling rate the transformation is retarded in time and takes place at a lower temperature than that of pure titanium. As a result, it is possible for the transformation at lower temperature to become much slower, permitting intermediate microstructures of alpha to be produced. These forms of alpha have different properties from the alpha formed at high temperatures.
Analysis of Welded Structures. Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Their Consequences by Koichi Masubuchi