By Katherine Munn, Barry Smith
Ontology is the philosophical self-discipline that goals to appreciate how issues on the planet are divided into different types and the way those different types are similar. this can be precisely what details scientists target for in growing established, computerized representations, known as ontologies, for dealing with info in fields such as technology, govt, undefined, and healthcare. at the moment, those structures are designed in various other ways, so they can not percentage information with each other. This quantity exhibits, in a non-technical manner and utilizing examples from drugs and biology, how the rigorous program of theories and insights from philosophical ontology can increase the ontologies upon which details administration relies.
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Additional info for Applied Ontology
When Husserl says that formal ontology is the science of the object as such, he does not mean that it is about the object in itself as it really is, since every science should be about its object as it really is. Even a science of fake objects would be about these objects as they really are. Fake guns, for instance, really exist, and a science of fake guns should study them insofar as they really exist.
It must, for example, do justice to the fact that biological kinds are always such as to manifest, not only typical instances, but also a penumbra of borderline cases whose existence sustains biological evolution. As we will show in what follows, if we want to avoid certain difficulties encountered by previous knowledge representation systems, the role of instances in the structuring of the biological domain cannot be ignored. (5) There is much need, also, for a better understanding of synchronic and diachronic identity.
34 Existing bioinformation systems concentrate on terms which are organized into highly general taxonomical hierarchies and, thus, deal with biological reality only at the level of classes (kinds, universals). Individual organisms – which are instantiations of the classes represented in these hierarchies – are not taken into consideration. This lack of consideration has partially to do with the fact that the medical terminology, which constitutes the basis for current biomedical ontologies, so overwhelmingly derives from the medical dictionaries of the past.
Applied Ontology by Katherine Munn, Barry Smith